"And God set them [sun, moon, and stars] in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth...." (Gen. 1:17)

Notice: God SET them.... Now, inside our so-called "solar" system, we have only the sun and the moon (from the verse above). We KNOW the moon moves. Therefore, when God SET IT "in the firmament", the inescapable meaning is that He set it in motion on the track it follows. Thus, when He set THEM in the firmament it is a grammatical imperative that He set the sun and stars in motion ALSO on their tracks just like He set the moon in motion on its track.


"Then spake Joshua.... Sun, stand thou still upon

Gibeon, and thou moon, in the valley of Ajalon.

And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until

the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies....

So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and

hasted not to go down about a whole day."

(Joshua 10:12,13)

Let's focus on the "MOON" in these verses:

Both Heliocentrists and Geocentrists agree that the moon is moving around the earth.  No argument on that.  Then we see that the Scripture says that Joshua commanded not only the sun but ALSO THE MOON to stop, and that both obeyed the command. He commanded both of them at the same time in the same breath in the same sentence to stop their motion. He obviously accepted as fact that the moon he was speaking to was a moon that was moving. Since, therefore, he addressed both sun and moon together in his command, it is a grammatical imperative that when he commanded a moving moon to stand still, he was ALSO commanding a moving sun to stand still.

(A similar argument can be made for the movement of the stars from Psalm 8:3 where "...the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained..." is written.  "Ordained"--number 3559 is derived from the Hebrew #5087 which means "to place".  The moon that was placed moves; so, grammatically, would the stars.)

(Are you revisionist creationist leaders SURE you want to insist that Joshua was telling the earth and not the sun to stand still...and that the Holy Spirit of Truth caused the opposite of the Truth to be recorded in God's Word?? What happened to "God is not the author of confusion...."?!) [I Cor.14:33]

And what about:

"Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees

...ten degrees backward. So THE SUN RETURNED ten degrees,

by which degrees it was gone down...."

(Isaiah 38:8)

If something is moved "backward" it must ipso facto have had a forward direction and movement. The shadow moved backward on the sun dial...undeniably the opposite of the way it always moved. The movement of the shadow is inseparable from the movement of the sun in this verse for it says the sun returned. In short, the sun's movement, not the earth's, is flatly declared here (as well as in numerous other Scriptures listed (HERE & HERE).

One may argue that God really meant that the earth and not the sun is moving in all these Scriptures, that He just used a "language of appearance" or "phenomenological language", or some such polysyllabic excuse for accepting what "science falsely so-called" says over what the Word of God says. Unfortunately, this hermeneutical slight-of-hand can and does make the Creation days billions of years long (HERE, p.2), the Noahic Flood just a local flood, the virgin Mary just "a young girl", "heaven" a superstitious myth, and on and on. Moreover, this method of handling Scripture actually says that God has lied to us or is so inept with words that He couldn't communicate a simple Truth about whether it is the earth that goes around the sun or the sun that goes around the earth.


Semantics too can be unyielding on this subject. Let's take a hard look at the pronoun THOU in Joshua 10:12: "Sun, stand THOU still...."

Strong's Hebrew Concordance #859 confirms what we would expect, namely: "THOU" means "YOU".

So, semantically, what Joshua said was: "Sun, YOU stand still...and moon, YOU stand still too. Sun, YOU stop over Gibeon and moon, YOU stop over Ajalon."

Since Ajalon is only five or six miles away from Gibeon, the sun and the moon are, cosmographically speaking, in the same place, i.e., "in the midst of heaven".

Being in the same place, the moon is blocking out the sun. Joshua's commands therefore, are ordering both orbs which are at the point of full solar eclipse to move no further.

Eclipses were known and not feared in those days, but--when in response to Joshua's commands which all heard (v.12)--a moving moon stopped and stayed in front of a moving sun which suddenly stood still "and hasted not to go down about a whole day", that was another matter! Joshua's enemies were understandably freaked out of their gourds (in the recent vernacular) and Joshua's soldiers "avenged themselves...."

Clearly, the designation "YOU" applied by God to a moving sun can not be and must not be twisted to say: "YOU, Earth, stand still" or "YOU, Time, stand still." One may want it to say one of those, but the Bible simply does not say either one. (Bible scholars, of course, agreed on the plain language until Newton's Kabbalist "math" persuaded most of them that man's science had triumphed over Bible science and that they needed to adjust their interpretation of Scripture accordingly).


Now, six-day Creationists are, of course, well aware of the stultifying effect that Theistic Evolutionists have on the Creationist movement. Compromise with God's Truth is harder to combat than out-and-out resistance, most would agree.

A classic expression of this fact was saved for the very last frames of Hollywood's first version of Inherit The Wind (about the Scopes "Monkey Trial" in Dayton, Tennessee in July of 1925). After incessant and thinly disguised mockery of Bryan and Bible fundamentalism in general throughout the movie, Darrow (played by Spencer Tracy), alone in the courtroom in the final scene, picks up a copy of the Bible in one hand and a copy of Darwin in the other. He looks slowly back and forth at each book for a minute, thoughtfully weighing this one, then the other one. Then, smiling broadly as if in response to a revelation, he slaps Darwin and the Bible together, gives them a long look and an affirmative head shake, tucks them under his arm and walks out. Though not a word is spoken, his confident, satisfied amalgamation of the two made the point: Put Darwin and the Bible together!

And well could Hollywood revel in that silent visual message...considering the acceptance of evolutionism in the world and (more to the point) in the Christian Churches since the Scopes Trial in 1925! That movie and that scene were merely a dramatization of the ability of the Theistic Evolutionist concept to bring discredit and scorn upon the Bible as the source of Absolute Truth, while at the same time elevating "science" to the role of Truth Giver, from thenceforward equal or superior to the Bible and able to make It bow when the two conflict!

Fellow Creationist, I submit to you that the same scene can be replayed substituting Newton's Principia for Darwin's Origin of Species. Together with Copernicus' and Kepler's and Galileo's earlier efforts (and Einstein's "relativity" and Sagan's "exobiology" later), man's books denying the plain geocentrism of Scripture were--as in the Scopes Trial (HERE)--put together with the Bible and "Theistic Copernicanism" was born! All that had to be changed was where the Bible says the sun moves. Thereafter, we were all to understand that It really means the earth moves when It says the sun moves. As with evolution, just change the six-days of Creation to millions of years....Here, just change "sun" to "earth". Quite simple really. HERE

After sun and earth were switched by those trying to accommodate both Bible and what they thought was "science", the Churches gave in everywhere, just as most have given in to evolutionism since Darwin, and particularly since the Scopes Trial.

The Christian Compromise with Copernicanism established the one and only criterion needed for the success of Satan's evolution myth in the world first, then the churches. The criterion? Again, quite simple. Plain Scripture can and must be reworked to match the claims of "science falsely so-called".

As a six-day "evening and morning" Creationist, I, as one of you, submit that there is a way to undermine the idolatrous non-secular science establishment upon which rests the evolution myth you detest. If you are interested in restoring and certifying Bible credibility, prayerfully consider: a) Getting informed about the weakness and vulnerability of the heliocentric model, and: b) Boldly attack that Bible-bashing model and watch the attack spread to evolutionism (and all that is built upon both of those myths)!; c) New evidence proving Copernicanism is the keystone of the Big Bang Paradigm (HERE) and that this evolutionary model of the universe is derived from the Kabbala and thus cannot be financed in the USA under the Constitution can be seen (HERE - HERE - HERE).

If Creationists will stand up for God's Word on geocentrism and refuse all compromise, they will see that their fears of embarrassment, etc., are not from God (II Tim.1:7). Sir Fred Hoyle and other prominent astronomers and physicists have admitted that the geocentric model is just as good scientifically as the heliocentric model (HERE)--and it is certainly a whole lot better Scripturally!  Indeed, a far more Biblical and scientific model which shrinks the whole universe to less than one light day's thickness and exposes all of modern cosmology as a pseudo-scientific sham can be seen in a seven part series beginning HERE....

In short, the world has been systematically indoctrinated to believe that the Bible-bashing earth-moving Copernican model is a scientific fact beyond challenge.  The truth of the matter as any can confirm for themselves is that not only the Copernican Model--but the entirety of modern cosmology--is a massive deception and totally vulnerable to exposure as such.  Some links that will lead to confirmation of that statement can be tested in the "Kabbala" and "Size and Structure" series beginning HERE & HERE.

After a person finds out that evolutionism is a contra-scientific and utterly goofy explanation for the ineffable complexity of design and function of the entire plant and animal and human life forms, Theistic Evolutionism becomes a cheap copout position that is a lukewarm abomination to God (Rev.3:15,16).  Creationists know this is true.

Likewise--after prayerful consideration of the Scriptures and the scientific and logical evidence supporting a non-moving earth--it should be obvious to all Truth-seeking Bible believers that the Theistic Copernicanism Compromise can fare no better in God's sight than the Theistic Evolution Compromise. Both compromises stink! God's Absolute Truths cannot be compromised! Period. HE will have no other gods--false science or otherwise--changing His Word and usurping His Glory! That's the way it is. You can count on it.

Therefore, it is time for Bible Creationists to either broaden their attack to include Copernicanism--and do so with a whoop!--or recant on their belief in Bible inerrancy on the six-day creation. A non-moving, geocentric earth is taught in the Bible just as plainly as the six-day creation HERE). Indeed, as noted, the creation account makes it clear that there was no sun to go around until the fourth day, yet there was light and darkness, evening and morning (HERE)!

Let no Christian be counted amongst the various kinds of Sun Worshippers that dot the historical record! "Solar System", my foot! God created an "Earth System" not a "Sun System"! Copernicanism makes the Sun the center, the source of life. God makes the Earth the center, the springboard of His Master Plan for eternal life. This "unmovable" (Ps.93:1) Earth is the place where His only begotten Son would obediently carry out that Plan. It is the place where "the New Earth" (Is.65:17;66:22; Rev.21:1) will exist forever right here at the center of the universe after this old earth has "been burned with fervent heat and dissolved" and has "fled away" never to be found again (Is. 65:17;II Pet. 3:10,12; Rev.20:11).

Time is up for the churches on this one (HERE). By allowing the takeover of the Physical Sciences thru their surrender to Bible-bashing Copernicanism, the churches opened the door to the takeover of the rest of man's "knowledge" by deceptions disguised as "science" (HERE). Now that this takeover extends thru the Natural Sciences, the Social and Behavioral Sciences, the Arts, Mathematics, and Religion, it is time for God's Judgment on the churches (I Pet.4:17,18). Jesus "was manifested to destroy the works of the Devil" (I John 3:8). These mega-deceptions are "the works of the Devil". Truly, "the Devil's time is short"! (Rev.12:12) "Come out of her [Babylon/confusion], my people..." God says (Rev.18:4). The "Church" is in Babylon/confusion up to its steeple tops!

Creation is the cornerstone of Bible credibility. (You can put that in italics and capitalize it: CREATION IS THE CORNERSTONE OF BIBLE CREDIBILITY.) OK?  A non- moving earth and a six-day creation have been tampered with and credibility has all but been destroyed as a result. God's Judgment begins with the restoration of those foundational Truths of Genesis One in His churches FIRST. (Rev.14:6,7: I Pet.4:17,18)

The call for God's people "to come out of Babylon (i.e., "confusion":Rev.18:4) begins with exposing the taproot of all modern Bible-bashing. That taproot is the Copernican lie.

None of us is stranger to deception. It's everywhere. The only way out of deception is "to continue in God's Word". Don't change it to fit clever deceptions. "Continue" in It.

That done, God promises: "Ye shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free (of Satan's lies)." (John 8:31,32,44)

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1997 Marshall Hall
Last Modified - Monday, February 20, 2012




On a cassette tape, Dr. DeYoung, an anti-geocentrist "Creationist" says that everybody should "understand that the Geocentric/Heliocentric controversy is completely separate from the Creation/Evolution controversy". (DeYoung and Selbrede debate)

Some reasons why this is the exact opposite of the Truth follow:

1) The Scope's Trial record shows clearly that Bryan's adversaries knew full well that Copernicanism and Darwinism were inseparable concepts. The comparison was "used to flog Bryan" several times and always to good effect for the evolutionists.(1)

2) All major encyclopedias and other historical references regognize the ineffably great impact the Copernican Revolution had on the course of history, the status of the Bible, and the direction of science. That revolution turned ALL knowledge upside down! (...Just as a counter-revolution against Copernicanism will turn ALL knowledge upside down again [or RIGHT-SIDE UP]!!) The main change caused by the Copernican Revolution was the exceptance of the belief that "science" had disproven the Bible. And, if the Bible could be wrong about the earth not moving, it could be wrong on other aspects of the creation, on Noah's Flood, the Virgin Birth, Heaven...anything!

Thus, the Copernican Revolution began a process of replacing the Bible with "science" as the new source of Absolute Truth. Religion, business, politics, science, art...everything had to get a new philosophical basis as "science" dethroned the Bible with Copernican heliocentrism.

This new mindset was indisputably foundational for the success of Bible-denying evolutionism that was the next thing the Devil was to send down the road, attired fetchingly again as "science". First the Physical "Sciences". Then the Life "Sciences"! Once understood, denial of the symbiotic connection inherent in this mindset can only be possible thru willful historical and spiritual blindness (often coupled with pleas that the focus has to be kept on evolution, again ignoring the fact that the two are fundamentally inseparable!). This is a blindness that can no longer be dismissed with a shrug amongst undeviating Bible Creationists today. It is a blindness that is the root of all modern Bible -bashing. Christians cannot continue to disregard and minimize this fact and be indifferent toward it. Satan has been allowed to trick even the very Elect on this one...and now God is calling His Own to take back that which was stolen....

3) Kepler, Galileo, and Newton--called "giants" who refuted geocentrism on the tape--were giants all right! They never refuted anything except the Bible! It is a demonstrable lie to say they proved geocentrism wrong. They did no such thing, nor has anyone else. But, in a spiritual sense, they are still giants, to be sure. They are the "giants in the land" that today's Joshuas and Calebs amongst honest folk everywhere are called by God to expose, knock off their pedestals, and drive out of the land which they helped fortify against Bible Absolutism!

4) Take Kepler, of whom it is said:"...the question of life's origin on earth fascinated Kepler.(2) And: "adaptation of species...seemed as logical to Kepler as it did to Charles Darwin over two centuries later when Darwin began to put together his theory of evolution."(3) Not only do we see here a clear and remarkably early connection of heliocentrism and evolutionism in the mind of this "giant" of the Copernican movement, we can see further along that he was the secret and unheralded father of the fatuous excesses of gravitation theory 50 years before the credit went to Newton (another "giant" who mutilated Scripture and invented special "mathematics" to achieve his ends). More, it is well established that Kepler believed there were evolved life forms on the moon.(4) How is it then that this precocious EVOLUTIONIST is acclaimed by Creationists today as a great man of God?!

Indeed, who is this Copernican-evolutionist Kepler Dude (that ICR now lionizes with a book, and Dr. DeYoung calls a "giant" who helped slay geocentrism)??

Well, Kepler's lineage and career are certainly of interest to any serious Bible lover. Note these factual tidbits:

---His grandmother was raised by a "kinswoman who had been executed for witchcraft".(5)

---His mother had forty-nine counts of witchcraft officially brought against her. (Some of these were doosies!) (6) Read:THE EARTH IS NOT MOVING for details....

---In January, 1616, officials in Wurttenberg charged Johannes Kepler himself with practicing "forbidden arts", i.e., witchcraft. (7)

---Kepler studied for the Lutheran Clergy, but was always wrangling with the church authorities and was never allowed to have a pulpit. (8)

---The pastor at Linz wouldn't allow Kepler to take communion.(9)

---While a university student in the late 1500's, Kepler wrote a wild story about demons taking people to the moon so they could watch the earth rotating. (10)

---Kepler got into a partnership with Tycho Brahe, the dean of astronomers at that time, who was a bulwark against the rising Copernican heresy. Brahe died rather suddenly (and conveniently for the Copernican movement) pleading with Kepler not to use his work to further Copernicanism (which plea was ignored, of course). (11)

---Etcetera, etcetera. (12)

5) Both Protestant and Catholic church leaders remained pretty solidly opposed to Copernicanism for 150 years until Newton's Principia was published in 1687. Then they began to waffle. Still, there were plenty of holdouts thru the next century and into the 1800's. (The R.C. Index didn't delete Copernicus until 1835.) Scattered books and protests even continued until c.WWI, then virtually died out, and only in recent years have begun to be seen and heard again. Though Newton's book certainly did not prove Copernicanism, it incorporated some new (or stolen from Leibnitz!) abstract mathematics which served that purpose and rapidly gained acceptance at the universities (just like Darwinism later).

6) Mathematics, utterly abstruse and esoteric, now became the primary instrument in the hands of Copernicans. The secular science establishment used this new priesthood of mathematicians to soften up the universities first, and then the churches. Thus was the way prepared for the acceptance of some real Bible-bashing by the coming "scientific" substitute for the six-day Creation of man and all else, viz., evolutionism.

Once Satan's counterfeit of God's Truth of an earth-centered geocentric universe gained control of "higher" education, the way was clear to foist his evolutionary counterfeit into the corridors of academia with very little opposition! The real spade work had already been done!

Copernicans Voltaire and Erasmus Darwin (Charles' grandfather) were developing "ape-man" theories in the 1700's. By the time lawyer Sir Charles Lyell came along with his uniformitarian geology in 1830, evolutionary ideas were fermenting and fomenting in many universities, awaiting only Darwin's "natural selection" mechanism to uncork the bottle. Is there anyone anywhere who will not give 100 to 1 odds that the earliest proselytizers of evolutionism were not avowed Copernicans, having just received that great quantum leap in "wisdom" from their grandfathers?? I can find none.

What I do find, is that Philosophers and other intellectuals, all Copernicans (from Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibnitz et al thru Kant and Hegel et al and on to Schopenhauer and Nietzsche et al) had established the heliocentric cosmology so solidly over a 300 year period in the universities and publication circles that even the famous scientist von Humboldt was cowed into silence. Just before Darwin's book came out in 1859, Humboldt said: "I have known too for a long time, that we have no arguments for the Copernican system...." Still, fear of "scorn of a thoughtless multitude" prevented him from saying anything. (13)

Thus, secure from any credible attack on their Copernican "science" front, the new Darwinian "science" offensive could then link hands with that "established scientific truth" and forge boldly ahead toward the goal of pushing the Bible completely off stage as a repository of Truth.

In all this, as many of you know, Ernst Haeckel was a powerful force early in the establishment of Darwinism. This biological note about Herr Haeckel succintly tells what happened and why it happened: "Ernst Haeckel wedded the idea of classical physics [Copernicanism] with the new Darwinian history of nature to form a comprehensive materialist cosmology, or `anti-theology'..." (14).

This "comprehensive materialist cosmology" is what Creationists today are up against and, excepting a handful, they do not know it! Evolutionism does NOT stand alone as a Bible-wrecking, contra-scientific deception, Satanically conceived. Oh no! Evolutionism is historically, philosophically, scientifically, and spiritually WEDDED TO a previously conceived Bible-wrecking, contra-scientific deception called Copernicanism! The Creation "movement" today denies or ignores this wedded union and thus is not 1/50th the threat to Satan's kingdoms in this world that it can and should be.

Fellow Creationists: It's wake-up time!!

And all this is not the half of it!

There was another "ism" that was born out of the Copernican mindset but was floundering until evolutionism began to take hold. That was Communism. As evolutionism sank securely into university curriculums (and was soon augmented by evolution-based Freudianism in the Behavorial "sciences"), Marxist Communism took on new life and in a mere generation and a half had conquered Russia. So an officially atheistic state was established which was referred to in the early days as the application of "Scientific Socialism" to government and economics. What was this "scientific" base anyway?

Well, most Creationists know by this time that Biological Evolutionism is an indispensable foundational principle of "Scientific Socialism" (which includes not only Communism, but the infinitely more slinky idea of "Humanism"). Most have heard that, after reading Darwin, Marx said: "This is the book which contains the basis in natural history for our view."(15) When Marx finished his first volume of Das Kapital he offered to dedicate it to Darwin. Darwin's book had given God "the death blow", he exulted to Lassalle. What he and Engles et al had created out of the anti-Bible secular philosophy made possible by the triumph of Copernicanism in the physical sciences, was now certified by Darwin in the natural sciences! Atheistic Communism was now fully equipped by both the physical and natural sciences to conquer the world with a political and economic system which openly stated that Bible Christianity was moribund at last and would soon be put out of its misery by an enlightened "science"-based movement. Philosopher Nietzsche boasted in the 1880's: "God is dead; we have killed him with our science!"

While knowlegeable Creationists have known about the Communist-Socialist-Humanist dependency upon evolutionism, they have not generally known or thought about the Copernican connection to the same "isms". It is now time to understand this connection! It is now time to understand how Copernicanism PAVED THE WAY for the acceptance of Darwinism, and how Darwinism, in turn supplied the basis for conquest of the Social and Behavioral "sciences" (and the Arts, Mathematics, and Religion). It is time to understand that Communism and Humanism are equally dependent upon that other foundational "scientific" principle that goes hand in glove with evolutionism. That pre-evolutionary principle was and is Bible-bashing Copernicanism....

Does someone say they aren't convinced that the very heartbeat of Communist and Humanist ideology is the anti-Bible moving earth concept we call Copernicanism??

Let such a one lend an ear to what a gathering of Communist scientists in London in 1931 were saying. They knew that their system absolutely depended on a conviction that nothing in the universe can be motionless. (If anything could be motionless, then the earth could be as the Bible says, and the game would be over!)

Note these quotes from that formal gathering of Communist "scientists":

---"Modern physics rejects absolute inertia."(16)

---"Teaching the self-movement of matter received its full development in the dialectical materialism of Marx, Engles, and Lenin."(17)

---F. Engels established "one of the basic theses of dialectical materialism, i.e., the inseparability of movement from matter...."(18)

Notice the specialized role of Mathematics in all this....

---"This special mathematics--the tensor analysis, the matrix calculus...has for the greater part been created by the physicists themselves." (19)

---"For Mathematics there is only one way out: conscious, planned reconstruction on the basis of materialist dialectics" [i.e., atheist philosophy resting on Copernicanism and Darwinism).(20)

---"Proceeding from the Leninist theory...we in the Soviet Union shall reconstruct the Mathematical sciences...."(21)

The fact that the Copernican cosmology underpinning Communism and Humanism is erected totally on phony "reconstructed Mathematics" from Copernicus thru Einstein to NASA's "virtual reality" deceptions is a fact that must be grasped without further delay. All who are really interested in exposing and bringing down the evolution myth must begin: a) To depend on the God behind the geocentric Word; b) Eschew their fears of "science falsely so-called"; and: c) Get informed and begin to attack the Copernican taproot of these deceptions masquerading as "science".

It's God's Word, after all, and He will not have it return to Him void on this Creation matter indefinitely! (Isaiah 55:11)

But Soviet Communism is finished, someone objects, "so what's the big deal about what their scientists said?"

The problem, Creationist friend, (not to ignore the little matter of the rise of Communist China to superstate status...) is that Humanism is in place all over the world today and Humanism has exactly the same roots in Copernicanism and Darwinism as Soviet Marxism had!

It's the same Bible destroyer as before, only now--outside China Cuba, N.Vietnam, and N. Korea--wearing a different hat. The whole world is ready to unite under a Humanist New World Order and usher in a Humanist New Age. The cards are dealt. It's a done deal!

And the real purpose, the hidden agenda, of this incipient (and insidious) cardboard utopia about to descend on all of us??

Simply this:...A one world religion where all beliefs except Bible Christianity will be allowed.... ("Hate Crime" laws--now on the books and steadily broadening their scope toward this end--will be the instrument used to criminalize New Testament Christianity in the pantheistic New World Order.)



1 - Ray Ginger, Six Days Or Forever? Oxford U. Press.,p.125.

2 - John Lear, Kepler's Dream. (Full text and notes. U. of CA, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1965), Footnote, p.7.

3 - Ibid.

4 - Ibid.

5 - Ibid., p.3.

6 - Ibid., pp.31,35.

7 - Ibid., p.34.

8 - Ibid., p.4.

9 - Ibid., p.33.

10 - Ibid., p.5.

11 - Ibid., p.7 (And: Fred Hoyle, Astronomy and Cosmology. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1975, p.416.

12 - Marshall Hall, The Earth Is Not Moving, Fair Education Foundation, Inc., 1991, Cornelia, GA pp.44-63.

13 - C. Schoeppfer, The Earth Stands Fast. (Charles Ludwig, Printer, N.Y., 1900), p.59.

14 - Encyclopedia Britannica, 1976 Ed., Vol.16, Macropedia; p. 380.

15 - J.D. Bernal, Marx and Science, (New York; International Publishers, 1952), p.17.

16 - Dr. Joseph Needham, Fwd., "Marx's Theory on the Historical Process", Science At The Crossroads. (London: Frank Cass and Co., Ltd., 1971), p.189.

17 - Ibid.

18 - Ibid., p.188.

19 - Ibid., pp.215,216.

20 - Ibid., p.225.

21 - Ibid., p.229.